Another possibility is to measure the change in the electrical conductivity of the solution during the titration. Since electrically neutral water molecules are formed from electrically charged hydrogen and hydroxide ions during neutralisation - domyhomework.club , the conductivity of the solution changes in the course of the titration and reaches a minimum at the equivalence point. The concentration of the analysis solution can again be calculated from the volume of measuring solution consumed up to this minimum. This method is called conductometric titration.
The use of electronic measuring instruments offers the possibility of carrying out titrations not manually but semi-automatically or even fully automatically. The electronically recorded measured values can be displayed as a graph either with the help of a computer or with the help of a graphing calculator with suitable additional software and hardware.
Automatic titrators used in modern laboratories pump the measuring solution into the analysis solution in a well-dosed manner via electronic burettes. The change in voltage (potential) or conductivity of the solution is also measured and evaluated electronically - chemistry solver . The software creates the titration curve from the values, determines the equivalence point and calculates the concentration of the sample solution. Since this automatic titration eliminates most human errors, the automated procedures are even more accurate and reliable than the good old manual titration.
The simple and reliable basic principle of titrimetric dimensional analysis can also be applied to other types of reactions - take my class . Several types of titrations are distinguished according to the type of reaction taking place. The methods briefly mentioned below can be used for many different analytical purposes.
The early socialists or social utopians
Checklist for the selection of your teaching material
Equations, interesting facts and history